Encyclopedia starting with t

Business and Industry

Tariffs

1776-1835

Commercial restrictions through tariffs have been an integral part of American history, and Tar Heels have voiced their opinion on tariff legislation since the founding of the United States.   The federal government has used tariffs to raise revenue and protect American industry and labor.  Before the Civil War, the federal government obtained close to ninety-percent of its revenue from tariffs and avoided insituting income taxation.

Business and Industry

Tariffs, Part I (Founding Era to American Civil War)

1776-1835

Commercial restrictions through tariffs have been an integral part of American history, and Tar Heels have voiced their opinion on tariff legislation since the founding of the United States.   The federal government has used tariffs to raise revenue and protect American industry and labor.  Before the Civil War, the federal government obtained close to ninety-percent of its revenue from tariffs and avoided instituting income taxation.

Business and Industry

Tariffs, Part II (American Civil War to Progressive Era)

1866-1915

The federal government has used tariffs to raise revenue and protect American industry and labor. After the Civil War, Congress intensified its efforts to "protect" American industry through tariffs, but sometimes met opposition.

Business and Industry

Tariffs, Part III (Progressive Era to Present)

1916-1945

Commercial restrictions through tariffs have been an integral part of American history, and Tar Heels have voiced their opinion on tariff legislation since the founding of the United States.   The federal government has used tariffs to raise revenue and protect American industry and labor. During the Great Depression, Congress passed the highest tariff in the United States history.  

Civil War

Teague Band (Civil War)

1836-1865

After the Civil War, many educators and reformers flooded into North Carolina and into its mountains, to uplift the Tar Heel. According to historians John Inscoe and Gordon McKinney, there were writers who perpetuated an endearing hillbilly stereotype, and some Americans discussed visiting the mountains again on vacations. 

Business and Industry

Texas Pete

1916-1945

Necessity breeds invention, and the Great Depression contributed to the creation and sale of Texas Pete hot sauce.  Since 1942, Texas Pete has been located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Although a couple nationwide competitors outsell Texas Pete, the product is popular in the Southeast, and the Garner Food Company's business philosophy includes a refusal to take on debt that might ultimately lead to its failure.

Business and Industry

Textile Strike of 1934

1866-1915

In 1934, textile workers in North Carolina went on strike. Though they had many grievances, including long hours and low wages, the likely cause of the strike was the lack of labor representation in the textile code authority, the National Recovery Administration regulatory board that briefly oversaw textile manufacture in the United States.

Education

Thales College

1990-present

Thales College opened its doors to undergraduates in Wake Forest, North Carolina, in 2022. Thales was founded in 2019 and started high school dual enrollment classes and a summer institute program in 2021. The continuing education program for a Certificate of Classical Education Philosophy began in 2023. This private school has a specific focus: providing...

Political History

The 1950 Smith-Graham Senate Race

1946-1990

Willis Smith and Frank P. Graham endured a pivotal Democratic primary election in 1950. Both candidates contented for the U.S. Senate seat left open by Senator J. Melville Broughton’s death. During the race, Smith and Graham divided on social issues, particularly racial integration. Smith's calculated attack of Graham’s liberal social views proved successful as he won the primary and eventually the 1950 Senate election.

Early America

The Justice and Policy of Taxing the American Colonies in Great-Britain

1664-1775

In 1765, Maurice Moore published a pamphlet, The Justice and Policy of Taxing the American Colonies in Great Britain.  In it, he expressly opposed the Stamp Act and specifically condemned taxation without representation and the concept of virtual representation.  As a result, Governor Tryon stripped Moore of his judicial appointment.

Colonial North Carolina

The Justice and Policy of Taxing the American Colonies in Great Britain Considered

1664-1775

Nine years before James Iredell penned To The Inhabitants of Great Britain and challenged Sir William Blackstone’s parliamentary sovereignty argument, Judge Maurice Moore, an associate justice of the superior court of Salisbury and father of future U.S. Supreme Court Justice Alfred Moore, undermined Great Britain’s legal defense for increased economic regulation. 

Business and Industry

The North Carolina Gazette

1836-1865

Established in New Bern, The North Carolina Gazette was North Carolina’s first newspaper. The first issue was published on August 9, 1751.

Early America

The Pee Dee Indians

  The people who lived at the Town Creek site during its heyday have been referred to as the "Pee Dee Indians" and their distinctive lifestyle, the "Pee Dee Culture." The site itself is located on the west bank of the Little River near its confluence with Town Fork Creek, in Montgomery County. A few miles downstream the Little River flows into the Pee Dee [River], which becomes the Great Pee Dee as it cuts through northeastern South Carolina to empty into the Atlantic Ocean.

The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths

1866-1915

In this compilation, Walter Hines Page includes three essays discussing democracy and education in the South: “The Forgotten Man,” “The School That Built a Town,” and the publication’s namesake, “The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths.”

Education

The Southerner

1866-1915

In this fictional autobiography of Nicholas Worth, Walter Hines Page depicts the unsuccessful attempts of a Harvard- educated Progressive and Southerner to usher in education reforms in his native state.  Many parts of this fictional work indicate what Page's ideas regarding educational reform and his experiences in North Carolina.  

Churches

The Test

1664-1775

On the eve of the American Revolution, the Vestry of St. Paul’s Church in Edenton wrote the “Test”, and it became a catalyst for fanning the flames of independence within the colony of North Carolina. Written approximately a month before the Declaration of Independence, the "Test" proved to be the church’s own declaration of independence.

Business and Industry

The Wachovia Corporation

1664-1775

The Wachovia Corporation developed from a small bank in Salem, North Carolina to become the fourth-largest bank holding company in the United States. Before Wells Fargo acquired Wachovia in 2008, it was the largest bank in the South, and it had the most extensive trust corporation, or financial service that assists with corporate wealth management, between Baltimore and New Orleans.

Places

The Walton War

1776-1835

During the early 1800s, present-day Transylvania County was the site of a border conflict between Georgia and North Carolina.  In 1803, Georgia claimed ownership of a twelve-mile strip of land in North Carolina, commonly referred to as the “orphan strip.”  The minor dispute was known as the Walton War because Georgia named the region Walton County in honor of George Walton, a Georgia signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Modern Era

Thinking Things Over

1946-1990

“Thinking Things Over” was a column in the Wall Street Journal written by Journal editor Vermont C. Royster (1914-1996). The column, which ran from 1964 until 1986, showcased Royster’s folksy language and conservative philosophy. Royster received a Pulitzer Prize for his work in 1984.

Political History

Tories

1664-1775

During the American Revolution (1776-1783), more than a few North Carolinians supported Great Britain.  They were called Loyalists or Tories.  The Royal Governor, Josiah Martin, hoped that all the former Regulators might side with the British.  But the governor’s wish never came true.  Most North Carolina Tories were Highland Scots.

Colonial North Carolina

To The Inhabitants of Great Britain

1664-1775

In “To the Inhabitants of Great Britain” (1774), North Carolinian and future Supreme Court Justice James Iredell challenged William Blackstone's legal interpretations and opposed what he described as Parliament’s attempt “to exercise a supreme authority” over the colonies.

African American

Tourgee, Albion (1838-1905)

1836-1865

Reconstruction was a turbulent time, filled with significant political and social change, violence, and controversy. One controversial figure was Albion Tourgee, an Ohioan who moved to North Carolina for economic opportunities.

Early America

Town Creek Indian Mound

Located near Mount Gilead, Town Creek Indian Mound is a Pee Dee ceremonial burial ground.  It remains the only North Carolina historic site dedicated to Native Americans and is a well-known Mississippian culture landmark. 

Counties

Transylvania County (1861)

1836-1865

The “Land of Waterfalls”, Transylvania County has more than 250 falls in its three forest parks, and Whitewater Falls, a 400-feet high waterfall, is the highest cascade east of the Rocky Mountains.  The county, established in 1861 from the Jackson and Henderson Counties, is located in the southwestern section of North Carolina in the Blue Ridge Mountains.  The Brevard College and the Brevard Music Center are the cultural and academic centers of Transylvania.

Sports and Entertainment

Travis, Randy (1959 - )

1946-1990

The “New Traditionalist,” Randy Travis, transformed the country music genre to its traditional, old style during his singing career in the 1980s and 1990s. Born in Marshville, a small community outside of Charlotte, Travis (born Randy Traywick) grew up on his family’s farm while playing and singing at concerts and parties. Travis’s big break came when he partnered with Lib Hatcher, and he became a country music legend before moving into an acting career.

Education

Trinity College

1836-1865

Formerly known as Brown's School, Union Institute, and Normal College, Trinity College was located in Randolph County and struggled financially until the wealthy Duke family started making donations and the instiitution moved to Durham in 1892.

Civil War

Trogdon, Howell Gilliam (1840 - 1894)

1866-1915

Howell Gilliam Trogdon, born in Randolph County in 1840, was the first North Carolinian to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. There is no better illustration of the ever-divided loyalties of Randolph County than one of its native sons, born in the last state to join the Confederacy, who received the highest award for valor in action that can be bestowed upon an individual serving in the Army of the United States of America.

Colonial North Carolina

Tryon, William; Governor

1664-1775

William Tryon, one of the most notorious royal governors of North Carolina, was born in England in 1729. Although he did not receive a formal education, Tryon’s family was well-esteemed, and his wife’s friendship with Lord Hillsborough led to his appointment as lieutenant governor of North Carolina in 1764. Tryon encountered heavy rebellion during the Regulator Movement and he was later relocated to serve as governor of the New York colony. He died on January 27, 1788, in England.

Colonial North Carolina

Tryon Palace

1664-1775

One of the largest and most ornate buildings in colonial North Carolina, the Tryon Palace was built in the late 1760s at the behest of its namesake, Royal Governor William Tryon. John Hawks was the architect, and the government assembly chambers and the house were dedicated on December 5, 1770.  Increased taxes to pay for the palace’s construction angered many Piedmont colonists.  After the American Revolution, the palace burnt down in a fire in 1798.  In 1959, after efforts to restore the site, Tryon Palace opened as the state’s first historic site.

Colonial North Carolina

Tryon’s Stamp Act Assembly

1664-1775

Many North Carolinians resisted the implementation of the Stamp Act.   Therefore, William Tryon, the royal governor, worked cunningly to enforce the law.

Colonial North Carolina

Turner, James (1766-1824)

1776-1835

Turner was an accomplished governor of North Carolina from 1802 to 1805. Before that, Turner was a soldier during the Revolutionary War, during which he served under the famous General Nathaniel Greene. Turner later became a representative in the House of Commons from 1798 to 1800 and served in the State Senate before reaching the North Carolina governorship in 1802. Turner was best known for his affiliation with Nathaniel Macon, a politician from North Carolina who mentored the Old Republicans.

Colonial North Carolina

Tuscarora

1664-1775

The Tuscarora, one of the most prominent tribes of eastern North Carolina at the time of European settlement, were a well-developed tribe that spoke a derivative of the Iroquoian language. The tribe established communities on the Roanoke, Tar, and Neuse Rivers, growing crops such as corn, picked berries and nuts. They also hunted big game such as deer and bears. Despite the tribe’s size and numerous warriors, the Tuscarora War (1711-1713) led to the migration of the tribe to New York and the near vanishing of the tribe from North Carolina.

Colonial North Carolina

Tuscarora War

1664-1775

What is now Carteret, Pamlico, Craven, Lenoir, Jones, Beaufort, and Pitt Counties was a terrifying place to live from 1711 to 1713.  North Carolinians and the Yamasee waged war against the Tuscarora.  Many colonists’ settlements were burned and the Tuscarora ax indiscriminately fell upon men, women, and children.  In the end, English colonists prevailed.  Captured Tuscarora were sold into slavery and those that escaped northward joined the Iroquois League.

Colonial North Carolina

Tyrrell County (1729)

1664-1775

A county with numerous wetlands, swamps, and bogs, Tyrrell is home to the largest habitat for black bears on the United States east coast. Outdoorsmen and naturalists visit Tyrrell County to fish, bird watch, and for water sports. Even so, Tyrrell is the least populated county in North Carolina; its wetlands, in times past, have discouraged travel, agriculture, and widespread settlement.