Reconstruction Bibliography

American Reconstruction History:

Allen, James S. Reconstruction: The Battle for Democracy. (New York: International Publishers, 1937).

Baggette, James Alex. The Scalawags: Southern Dissenters in the Civil War and Reconstruction. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003).

Beale, Howard K. The Critical Year: A Study of Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction. (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1930).

Belz, Herman. A New Birth of Freedom: The Republican Party and Freedmen’s Rights 1861-1866. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1976).

—————. Reconstructing the Union: Theory and Practice During the Civil War. (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1969).

Benedict, Michael Les. The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1973).

————————. The Fruits of Victory: Alternatives in Restoring the Union, 1865-1877. (Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1986)

————————. “The Politics of Reconstruction,” in American Political History: Essays on the State of the Discipline. Edited by John F. Marszalek and Wilson D. Miscamble. (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997): 54-107.

————————. A Compromise of Principle: Congressional Republicans and Reconstruction 1863-1869. (New York: Norton, 1974).

Bentley, George R. A History of the Freedmen’s Bureau. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955)

Bercaw, Nancy. Gendered Freedoms: Race, Rights, and the Politics of the Household in the Delta, 1861-1875. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003).

Bowen, David W. Andrew Johnson and the Negro. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989).

Brock, William R. An American Crisis: Congress and Reconstruction 1865-1867. (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1963).

Brown, Elsa Barkley. “To Catch the Vision of Freedom: Reconstructing Southern Black Women’s Political History, 1865-1880.” in Unequal Sisters: An Inclusive Reader in U.S. Women’s History. Edited by Vicki L Ruiz and Ellen Carol DuBois. (New York: Routledge, 1990), 124-46.

———————-. “Negotiating and Transforming the Public Sphere: African American Political Life in the Transition from Slavery to Freedom.” In Jumpin’ Jim Crow: Southern Politics From Civil War to Civil Rights, Edited by Jane Dailey, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, and Bryant Simon. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000) 28-66.

Buck, Paul H. The Road to Reunion 1865-1900. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1937).

Burgess, John W. Reconstruction and the Constitution 1866-1876. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1902).

Butchart, Ronald E. Northern Schools, Southern Blacks, and Reconstruction: Freedmen’s Education, 1862-1875. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980).

Carter, Dan T. When the War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865-1867. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985).

Censer, Jane Turner. “Mary Bayard Clarke’s Plain-Folk Humor: Writing Women into the Literature and Politics of Reconstruction.” Journal of Southern History 76 (May 2010): 241-74.

———————-. The Reconstruction of White Southern Womanhood, 1865-1895. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003).

Cimbala, Paul A. and Barton C. Shaw. Making a New South: Race, Leadership, and Community after the Civil War. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007).

Cimbala, Paul A and Richard Miller. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Reconstruction (New York: Fordham University Press, 1999).

Clemenceau, Georges. American Reconstruction 1865-1870, and the Impeachment of President Johnson. Trans. Margaret MacVeagh (New York: L. Macveagh, the Dial Press, 1928).

Clinton, Catherine. “Bloody Terrain: Freedwomen, Sexuality, and Violence during Reconstruction.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 76 (Summer 1992): 310-32.

Cox, LaWanda and John H. Cox. Politics, Principle, and Prejudice 1865-1866. (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1963).

Coulter, E. Merton. The South During Reconstruction 1865-1877. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1947).

Crow, Jeffery J. “Thomas Settle, Jr., Reconstruction, and the Memory of the Civil War.” Journal of Southern History 62 (November 1996): 689-726.

Cruden, Robert, The Negro in Reconstruction (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1969).

Current, Richard N. Reconstruction, 1865-1877. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965).

———————. Those Terrible Carpetbaggers: A Reinterpretation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).

Curry, Richard O. Radicalism, Racism, and Party Realignment: The Border States During Reconstruction. (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1969).

Daniels, Jonathan, Prince of Carpetbaggers. (Philadelphia and New York: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1958).

Donald, David. The Politics of Reconstruction 1863-1867. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965).

Du Bois, William E. B. Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880. Introduction by David Levering Lewis. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999).

———————–. “Reconstruction and Its Benefits,” American Historical Review 15.  (1910): 781-799.

Dunning, William A. Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction and Related Topics. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1898).

———————. Reconstruction: Political and Economic, 1865-1877. (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishing, 1907).

Edwards, Laura. Gendered Strife and Confusion: The Political Culture of Reconstruction. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997).

Fairman, Charles, Reconstruction and Reunion 1864-1888: Part One. (New York: Macmillan, 1971).

Fleming, Walter L. The Sequel of Appomattox: A Chronicle of the Reunion of the States (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1921).

——————-. A Documentary History of Reconstruction, 2 Vols. (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906; reprinted, 1966).

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. (New York: Harper and Row,1988).

————. “Black Reconstruction Leaders at the Grassroots.” In Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by Leon F. Litwack and August Meier. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 219-34.

————. Freedom’s Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders during Reconstruction. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).

————. Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1983).

————. A Short History of Reconstruction, 1863-1877. (New York: Harper & Row, 1990).

————. Forever Free: the Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. (New York: Knopf, 2005).

Foner, Eric and Olivia Mahoney. America’s Reconstruction: People and Politics after the Civil War. (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1995).

Franklin, John Hope. Reconstruction: After the Civil War (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961).

Fraser, Walter J., Jr. and Winfred B. Moore, Jr., ed. From Old South to New: Essays on the Transitional South. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981).

Frederickson, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914. (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1972).

Gambill, Edward L. Conservative Ordeal: Northern Democrats and Reconstruction, 1865-1869. (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1981).

Gillette, William. Retreat from Reconstruction, 1869-1879. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979).

Gutman, Herbert. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925. (New York: Vintage Books, 1976).

Grob, Gerald. “Reconstruction: An American Morality Play,” in American History: Retrospective and Prospect, Edited by George A. Billias and Gerald N. Grob. (New York: Free Press, 1971).

Hahn, Steven. A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration.  (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003).

Heyman, Max L. “The Great Reconstructor: General E. R. S. Canby and the Second Military District,” North Carolina Historical Review, 32 (January, 1955), 52-80.

Holt, Thomas. Black Over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina during Reconstruction. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977).

Hunter, Tera W. To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors after the Civil War. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997).

Hyman, Harold M. A More Perfect Union: The Impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on the Constitution. (New York: Knopf, 1982).

——————-. New Frontiers of the American Reconstruction. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1966).

——————-. The Radical Republicans and Reconstruction: 1861-1870. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967).

Jaynes, Gerald D., Branches Without Roots: Genesis of the Black Working Class in the American South, 1862-1882. (New York: OUP USA, 1986).

Johanssen, Robert W. Reconstruction 1865-1877. (New York; Free Press, 1970).

Kincaid, Larry G. “Victims of Circumstance: An Interpretation of Changing Attitudes Towards Republican Policy Makers and Reconstruction.” Journal of American History 57 (1970): 48-66.

Kousser, J. Morgan, and James M. McPherson, ed. Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).

Litwack, Leon. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. (New York: Knopf, 1979).

Lynch, John R. The Facts of Reconstruction. (New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1913).

Lynd, Staughton. Reconstruction. (New York: Harper & Row, 1967).

Maltz, Earl M. Civil Rights, the Constitution, and Congress, 1863-1869. (Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1990).

McKitrick, Eric L. Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960).

——————. “Reconstruction: Ultraconservative Revolution.” In The Comparative Approach to American History. Edited by C. Vann Woodward. (New York: Basic Books, 1968) 146-159.

McPherson, Edward. The Political History of the United States During the Period of Reconstruction. (Washington D.C.: Philip & Solomons, 1875).

McPherson, James M. The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964).

———————–. Ordeal By Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction 3rd Edition. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001).

Mitchell, Michele. Righteous Propagation: African Americans and the Politics of Racial Destiny after Reconstruction. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

Montgomery, David. Beyond Equality: Labor and the Radical Republicans, 1862-1872. (New York: Knopf, 1967).

Morris, Robert C. Reading, ‘Riting, and Reconstruction: The Education of Freedmen in the South, 1861-1870. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).

Nieman, Donald G. To Set the Law in Motion: The Freedmen’s Bureau and the Legal Rights of Blacks, 1865-1868. (Millwood, NY: KTO, 1979).

Novak, Daniel A. The Wheel of Servitude: Black Forced Labor After Slavery. (Lexington, Kentucky: University of Kentucky Press, 1978).

Olsen, Otto H. “Ku Klux Klan: A Study in Reconstruction Politics and Propaganda.” North Carolina Historical Review 39 (July 1962): 340-362.

—————. A Carpetbagger’s Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgee. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986).

—————. Reconstruction and Redemption in the South. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980).

Osthaus, Carl R. Freedmen, Philanthropy, and Fraud: A History of the Freedman’s Savings Bank. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976).

Oubre, Claude F. Forty Acres and a Mule: The Freedmen’s Bureau and Black Landownership. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978).

Perman, Michael. Emancipation and Reconstruction, 1862-1879. (1987, reprinted Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2003).

——————. The Road to Redemption: Southern Politics, 1869-1879. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984).

——————. Reunion Without Compromise: The South and Reconstruction 1865-1868. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973).

——————. Pursuit of Unity: A Political History of the American South. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009).

Quill, J. Michael. Prelude to the Radicals: The North and Reconstruction in 1865. (Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1980).

Rabinowitz, Howard N. Race Relations in the Urban South 1865-1890. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1978).

————————. Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982).

Rable, George C. But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984).

Ransom, Roger L. and Richard Sutch. One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977).

Riddleberger, Patrick W. 1866: The Critical Year Revisited. (New York: University Press of America, 1984).

Roark, James L. Masters Without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977).

Rodrigue. John C. Reconstruction in the Cane Fields: From Slavery to Free Labor in the Louisiana Sugar Parishes, 1862-1880. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001).

Saville, Julie. The Work of Reconstruction: From Slave to Wage Laborer in South Carolina, 1860-1870. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Singletary, Otis. Negro Militia and Reconstruction (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1957).

Shefton, James E. The United States Army and Reconstruction 1865-1877. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967).

Shenton, James P. The Reconstruction: A Documentary History. (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1963).

Stampp, Kenneth M. The Era of Reconstruction 1865-1877. (New York: Vintage Books, 1965).

Trefousse, Hans L. Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).

——————–. Reconstruction: America’s First Effort at Racial Democracy. (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1999).

Trelease, Allen W. White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979).

Walker, Clarence E. A Rock in a Weary Land: The African Methodist Episcopal Church During the Civil War and Reconstruction. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982).

Weisberger, Bernard A. “The Dark and Bloody Ground of Reconstruction Historiography.” Journal of Southern History 25 (1959): 427-447.

Williams, Heather Andrea. Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005).

Wood, Forest G. Black Scare: The Racist Response to Emancipation and Reconstruction. (Berkley: University of California Press, 1968).


North Carolina Reconstruction History:

Ashe, Samuel A’Court, History of North Carolina. (Greensboro: Charles L. Van Noppen, Publisher, Vol. I, 1925; Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Printing Co., Vol. II, 1925, II, chapters 60-70.)

Alexander, Roberta S. “Hostility and Hope: Black Education in North Carolina during Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867.” North Carolina Historical Review 53 (April 1976): 113-32.

———————–. North Carolina Faces the Freedmen: Race Relations during Presidential Reconstruction 1865-67. (Durham: Duke University Press, 1985).

Balanoff, Elizabeth. “Negro Legislators in the North Carolina General Assembly, July, 1868-February, 1872.” North Carolina Historical Review 49 (December 1972): 22-55.

Beckel, Deborah. Radical Reform: Interracial Politics in Post-Emancipation North Carolina. (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011).

Bernstein, Leonard. “The Participation of Negro Delegates in the Constitutional Convention of 1868 in North Carolina.” Journal of Negro History 34 (October 1949): 391-409.

Billings, Dwight B., Jr. Planters and the Making of a “New South”: Class, Politics, and Development in North Carolina, 1865-1900. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982).

Currey, Craig J. “Role of the Army in North Carolina Reconstruction, 1865-1877.” Master’s thesis, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1991).

DeMuro, Arthur. “We are Men’- Black Reconstruction in North Carolina, 1865-1870.” Master’s thesis, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1979).

Escott, Paul D. North Carolinians in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008).

Evans, William McKee. Ballots and Fence Rails: Reconstruction on the Lower Cape Fear. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1967).

————————. To Die Game: The Story of the Lowry Band, Indian Guerillas of Reconstruction. (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1971, 1995).

Hamilton, Joseph G. de Roulhac. “The Freedmen’s Bureau in North Carolina.” Southern Atlantic Quarterly 8, pts. 1, 2 (1909): 53-67, 154-63.

———————————–. Reconstruction in North Carolina (New York: Colombia University, 1914).

Holt, Sharon Ann. “Making Freedom Pay: Freedpeople Working for Themselves, North Carolina, 1865-1900.” Journal of Southern History 60 (1994): 229-62.

Mabry, William Alexander. The Negro in North Carolina Politics since Reconstruction. (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1940).

Mobley, Joe. James City: A Black Community in North Carolina, 1863-1900. (Raleigh: Department of Archives and History, 1981).

Powell, William S. North Carolina through Four Centuries. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989).

Ready, Milton. The Tar Heel State: A History of North Carolina. (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2005). 248-265.

Redding, Kent. Making Race, Making Power: North Carolina’s Road to Disfranchisement. (Urbana: University Illinois Press, 2003).

Walker, Jaqueline B. “Blacks in North Carolina during Reconstruction.” Ph.D. Diss., (Durham: Duke University, 1979).

Zipf, Karin L. Labor of the Innocents: Forced Apprenticeship in North Carolina 1715-1919. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005)

————–. “The Whites Shall Rule the Land or Die: Gender, Race, and Class in North Carolina Reconstruction Politics.” Journal of Southern History 65 (1999): 499-534.

Zuber, Richard L. North Carolina during Reconstruction. (Raleigh: Department of Archives and History, 1969).